Sunday, February 16, 2020

A Gentleman in Haggard's Time Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

A Gentleman in Haggard's Time - Research Paper Example The description of a gentleman in Haggard’s volume, King Solomon’s Mines is amongst the most prominent themes that this volume intends to explore. The volume’s setting is during an epoch when the British dominion was enlarging across the earth.Haggard’s ideologies of a gentleman are vital in that they contrast the notions of sex, in the appearance of a woman’s power and race in the shape of the archaic versus the civilized male. These assertions of maleness comprise ideologies of how imperialism and the British dominion were described as a stringently male scope, a field overpowered and regulated by a patriarchy of authority. A description of maleness is extremely intricate identify since it transforms with time. A trait such as strength, are usually interrelated with maleness, is not necessary in a community that does not need all men to be fighters, but it is still a significant male attribute. A conventionally feminine trait such as sentimentalit y has nowadays transformed into a crucial characteristic of a well rounded male, and it displays a reassurance in one’s sexuality. This implies that any description should consider divergence in culture and the epoch. During the epoch when Haggard was writing his dissertation, it was a period of quick transformation of ideologies of the requirements for manliness. At this epoch, there was a conflict between theoretical and corporeal facets of maleness identity. There were two features to maleness. Firstly, there was the notion of strength, bold, and prepared to die in combat and secondly, that of a reasonable man who is not reckless or erratic in his mannerisms. The lack of females in the volume is evident when the storyteller asserts in the beginning chapter that there would be no petticoat in the entire narration. However, there are two women in the volume Foulata as well as Gagool. The former is a primitive, barren African while the latter is elderly and hence cannot be we dded. Therefore, these two individuals are depicted as insignificant characters in the volume. Nonetheless, they are critical is the comprehension of Haggard’s viewpoint of manliness. Gagool occupies a rank of exceptional authority considering her gender. She is distant from the urbane, white Englishmen. This is the most disintegrated of personalities and her description is that of an animal, a withered monkey. However, this character sustains supremacy of fear over the men in the volume. She is also the only character with the right of entry into the fortune of the mines. Manliness of the three males in the volume reassurance occurs with Gagool’s ruin, and the intimidation of new female is effectively crashed. This dominance of males is emphasized in a staunch demeanour, which serves to praise other such occurrences in the volume. Moreover, the description of an idyllic gentleman there is an aspect of capability to explore females. The depiction of this is in the expl oration of the virgin land of Africa. The whole narration is an adventure in attempting to penetrate and domesticate the female land. The maleness of English gentlemen is, hence, under threat and must be claimed, usually violently, so as to recover supremacy over women. This occurs numerously in the narration. The male champions survive at the end of the volume only after a struggle with the land which comprises a death confronting battle throughout the wilderness. They also conquer those generated by the land, the natives Kukuanas. It is through the depiction of this Victorian masculinity that Curtis, Good as well as Quartermain triumph over the womanly territory. They display strength and courage in the slaughtering of enormous animals. They also depict fortitude and

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Internal Memorandum of law for negeligent supervision(the Tuttles) and Assignment

Internal Memorandum of law for negeligent supervision(the Tuttles) and negeligence( the Jone's) - Assignment Example Owen and Dolly Jones, who own and operate the campground, dont have any security on the premises because they are a "mom and pop" operation, and many of the campers come back year after year. They posted a sign out front that says, "Everyones family at the O & D Family Campground!" Tamaras family has been looking for a summer spot to which they can return year after year, so they gave the O & D Family Campground a try this year. The first morning after arriving, the two 10 year-old girls hit the pool at about 9:30, even though a sign posted at the pool entrance states that the pool is not supposed to open for another half hour, at 10:00 am. Tamara dove into the pool, and said, "Ow! Its shallow here, but it is warm! Come on in!" Shayla yelled, "What?" and dove in right next to Tamara, but she hit bottom and broke her arm. Tamara saved Shayla from drowning by pulling her to the side of the pool, and then helping her out to the pool deck. The girls yelled for Tamaras parents, who came out and immediately called an ambulance. Owen and Dolly returned from breakfast in town, and rushed into the pool area before the ambulance even arrived. Tamaras mom wondered why the pool was not marked as shallow on that end, but Dolly says they put up the signs every morning when they get ready to officially open the pool, plus the pool is sand bottom and relatively soft anyway. First: The Americans with Disabilities Act and other jurisprudence protects Shayla. Even though she is dyslexic, that does not mean that she is any more responsible or that the campground is any less responsible. Second: A business has some defense against negligence if what occurred happened outside normal business hours. However, this defense is not ironclad: If a company has an employee do an errand and the employee gets into a crash while carrying a company-issued cell phone or pager or is a non-designated driver, the company can be liable even outside of normal operating hours (FindLaw,

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Total Quality Management And HRM

Total Quality Management And HRM This chapter provides the background to this project termed The role of human resources management in the implementation of total quality management; it consists of an introduction to total quality management and human resources management. It will also provide an introduction to problem/questions the research intends to resolve, highlight the reason for my interest in the research topic, indicate the possible benefactors of this research work, specify the locus and focus of the project and the methodology that will be adopted during the course of the project. The aims, objectives and deliverables of the study will also be clearly defined followed by the project outline. 1.1 Introduction to Total Quality Management and Human Resources Management Organisations that pay special attention to the quality performance of their operations are mostly rewarded in the global business world, for organisations to survive in the tough competitive market they must continuously improve the quality level of their products and services; it is onus on the management to find ways of improving their quality services the question is how? Fortunately the business environment have been able to define certain means of achieving and improving quality in their individual organisations, although different organisations implore variable tactics they all have one method in common which is Total Quality Management (TQM), researchers have different interpretation of TQM, but according to youssef et al (1996) they all agree that based on the proper implementation of TQM, it can improve quality of products and services, improve company performance level, reduce costs thus improving the companys competitive advantage in the global market, in addition to this previous studies all agree that TQM is an approach to improving the effectiveness and flexibility of a business as a whole i.e. its essentially a way of organising and involving the whole organisation; every single individual at every level or department. This implies that for any organisation striving towards continuous improvement, each individual of the organisation must acknowledge the other and recognise that each activity (small or big) matters. From the literature review, it will be established that Human Resource Management plays a crucial role in implementing TQM through reinforcing human relationships, improving employee competence, and achieving culture change. Quality gurus such as: W. Edwards Deming, Joseph M. Juran, Philip B. Crosby, Genichi Taguchi, Kaoru Ishikawa and Walter A. Shewhart amongst others all agree on the importance of a team based culture for organisations to continuously improve on quality, perhaps the most popular of the quality gurus is Deming for hi s contribution to the Japanese industry in the 1950s, all of their quality philosophies had the following points in common: Providing quality goods and services. Customer focused (internal external). Production is optimised through team-work, transformational leadership and statistical measurement. The central focus of Total Quality Management and related approaches is customer (internal external) based, The external customer is the reason for a business to exist, and by directing every operation of the internal customers (employees) of the of the organisation towards the external customer satisfaction through continuous improvement in quality. Research by Wilkinson (1992) and Collinson et al. (1998) amongst other researchers opine that there are two sides to TQM a hard side and a soft side, and that the soft side emphasizes on the management of human resources, relationship between employees and employers (teamwork), customer care and the hard side lay emphasis on the technical aspect of an organisation. The soft side of TQM is mostly adopted by service industries while the hard side is accustomed to manufacturing industries. The issue with this Hard and Soft TQM concept is that most organisations fail to integrate these two parts effectively, especially in the manufacturing industries which tend to focus on production first and quality second due to their desire to meet the schedule. According to Omachonu, V. and Ross, J., (2004) in the United states and other highly industrialised countries the economy has shifted from manufacturing to service industries, indicating that 80% of workers globally are employed in the service sector. This suffices to say that quality improvement can only be achieved through the actions of the humans in the organisation, HRM is the practice adopted by organisations to achieve this goal, HRM can be defined as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisations most valued assets i.e. the people/humans working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the organisations objectives (Michael, A. 2006). The notion sustaining the practice of HRM is that people are the organisations key resource and organisational performance largely depends on them. Therefore if an appropriate ra nge of HR practices and processes are developed and implemented effectively, then HR will make a substantial impact on an organisations performance. Although previous research has established the fact that HR is crucial to performance, the general consensus from most of the research especially that carried out by Purcell et al (2003) is that HR can make an impact by contributing to the following: The development and successful implementation of high performance work practices, particularly those concerned with job and work design, flexible working, resourcing (recruitment, selection and talent management),employee development (increasing skills and extending the skills base),reward, and giving employees a voice. The formulation and embedding of a clear vision and set of values. The development of a positive psychological contract and means of increasing the motivation and commitment of employees. The formulation and implementation of policies which, in the words of Purcell et al (2003) meet the needs of individuals and create a great place to work. The provision of support and advice to line managers on their role in implementing HR policies and practices. The effective management of change (Purcell et al, 2003.) From the above it is obvious that HRM plays a huge role in TQM, hence this research will be focused on the identifying the HRM practices that are most effective to TQM and how best this practices are implemented in the industry today, the research will focus its attention in the oil service industry of Nigeria thus the topic The role of human resources management in the implementation of total quality management in the oil service industry the research will be done using a multinational oil servicing company (Hercules Offshore) as a case study, the reason for this is that most developing countries still fail to recognise their employees and the role they play in the quality of goods and services, my interest in this topic arose from my experience working in the Nigerian company I realised that most employees lacked commitment to the managerial goals and objectives, emphasis are made more on individual performance rather than a holistic approach which is the main concept of TQM, there was a huge gap between the front office and the back office, this research aims to identify how this gaps could be closed to encourage continuous quality. Most companies in Nigeria and other developing countries that are yet to grasp the advantage of a committed work force will find this project useful, even the country as a whole would benefit from what this project aims to achieve because if every individual lives and performs for a general goal not an individual goal the country would move forward. 1.2 Project Aim The aim of this project is to identify and study the impact of Human resources management in the implementation of Total quality management and the role of the humans (employees) in quality attainment and improvement. 1.3 Project Objectives There are some objectives that fall within this specific aim and the objectives include: Does the Nigerian average worker know what TQM is? What are the perceptions of the companies customer service in Nigeria? How are these practices implemented in Nigerian oil servicing industries? What are the exact HRM practices that assist in the implementation of TQM in the oil service industry? What are the factors influencing employees to adhere or refute company quality policies? The determinants of employee responses to TQM 1.4 Deliverables Understanding the role of HRM in the implementation of TQM Understanding total quality management and the need for organisations to have an effective and efficient TQM model. Understanding how management strategies for continuous quality improvement can reach the roots of the organisation Improving employees commitment to quality in the Nigerian oil industry identify the major limitations to quality improvement practices in Nigeria Recommendations for further improvement. 1.5 Project Methodology This study is descriptive in its entirety rather than experimental. It entails collecting data in the form of literature review survey, questionnaire survey, and interview questions from some selected HR managers including the managers in the organisation for the case study (Hercules offshore). The methodology to be developed will focus on the mechanism through which high service level can be achieved by efficiently managing the human resources available to an organisation, the role of the human in TQM implementation, how TQM practices are implemented using HRM practices in the oil service industry in Nigeria, and to assess the average workers knowledge of TQM. This proposed project will involve a four phase design that will be used for implementation. The first phase of the project is the research planning, the second phase will involve the project planning, the third phase is for result analysis, fourth phase is the project summation. The main tasks to be completed at the end of the fourth phase plan are; i. Analysing the background of the survey through literature review ii. Selection of case study for the project iii. Carry out a feasibility study of the case study iv. Data Collection v. Data Analysis vi. Result Analysis vii. Discussion and Conclusion viii. Recommendation The methodology to be developed for the research and project planning, result analysis and project completion is illustrated in figure 1.1 Phase 1 Research Planning Phase 2 Project Planning Phase 3 Result Analysis Phase 4 Project Summation Figure 1:1 Methodology to be developed Source: Author This study addresses the importance of improving an organisations quality output through improving the efficiency and commitment of the internal customers (employees). Figure 1.2 shows a diagrammatic representation of the methodology giving the steps to be adopted. These steps are: understanding and knowing the aim of the project, designing questionnaires and arranging interviews, administering questionnaires and conducting telephone interviews with employees of an organisation in the oil services industry comprising of human resources managers, project managers, operations managers, vessel managers, shipyard managers and deck hands. Recommendation would also be made to enhance the organisations implementation of total quality management. This will be sent to the organisation in order to gain feedback from the recommended solutions. Understanding the direction of the project Designing questionnaires and arranging interviews Questionnaires and conducting interview Result Presentation and Analysis ng Discussion, Recommendations and Conclusion Figure 1.2: Diagrammatic representation of the Methodology Source: Author 1.6 Project Summary In this section the author provides a brief outline of the content of each chapter in the project. Chapter 1- Introduction to the dissertation, the project aim, objectives and the methodology to be adopted. Chapter 2 A literature review survey of the project that will comprise human resources management practices, total quality management, strategic management, and customer services. A summary of the literature review will be given at the end of the chapter. Chapter 3 A comprehensive study of the organisation background, including its products and services and an exhaustive insight into the oil servicing industry in Nigeria Chapter 4 The methodology to be used will be presented in this chapter. It will show the approach and other considerations that were made in obtaining data and result analysis for this project. Chapter 5 A compressive analysis of the empirical data and results of the study by describing the descriptive findings will be presented. Chapter 6- This will present the discussion of the work done, importance of the questionnaire, interviews and results to the project and issues encountered. The conclusion and recommendations are also presented in this chapter. The order of presentation for the chapters in this dissertation is shown graphically in figure 1.3 Chapter One Background of study Aim, Objectives and Deliverables Introduction Chapter Two Literature Review Related theories Chapter Three Company background and Oil service industry This chapter focuses on the concept of HRM and TQM in the Nigerian oil industry Chapter four Methodology Research design, approach and strategy Chapter five Results and Analysis of Data Results presentation Data analysis Chapter six Discussion and Future Work Discussion of findings Future works and Conclusion CHAPTER 2 Figure 1.3: Project Summary Source: Author LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction The role or effect of Human Resource practices on the implementation of Total Quality management cannot be over-emphasized, because it serves as a basis for ascertaining employees attitudes towards effective and efficient quality practices, simply put if the employees are not quality oriented, there is no quality hence the organisations ability to conform to its customers requirements is low, Several studies investigating the relationship of HRM and TQM have asserted the same ideology e.g. (Lammergeyer, 1991; Wilkinson, 1992; Oakland,1998; Palo and Padhi,2005). Additionally, according to Morrison and Rahim (1993) and Hoogervorst et al. (2005), TQM depends on the effective management of human resources. Considering the TQM model, Murphy and Cleveland (1991) state that the system that is used to appraise performance needs to be congruent with the culture and principles that guide the conduct of the organisation, unless congruence is retained, anything that is developed is liable to be rejected. Hence this chapter presents a literature review closely related to the project, the literature survey will be carried out in a topical format this is necessary to give an exhaustive background knowledge to the terms in the topic ; the first section will be on the definition and principles of human resource management, advantages of HRM in the global business world, the second section will consist of the definition and concept of total quality management, its origin and benefits to the industry, the third section will investigate the work done so far with respect to the role of HRM in the implementation of TQM and its importance, the fourth section will consist of the research background, proje ct justification and literature review summary. 2.1 Definition of Human Resources Management Presently in the dynamic competitive business environment, there has been reasonable doubt as to what the roles and functions of Human Resource Management (HRM) are in an organisation. According to Soderlund and Bredin (2005) previous research by American Business School Professors all identify HRM as an effective organisational tool, but due to the present volatile business environment there has been conflicts on the concept and role of HRM within an organisational structure. One of the main problems contributing to this is that there is no single unified concept of what is meant by HRM. There are a variety of definitions attributed in the literature as to what exactly HRM is. In addition to this philosophy, Brewster and Larsen (2000) stated that due to its diverse nature there is no generally accepted definition for HRM and what it entails. Less satisfactory definitions have been proposed by different authors Soderlund and Bredin (2005) classified HRM as a management philosophy tha t concentrates on people (employees) treatment, Dessler (2006) defined HRM as the process of acquiring, training, appraising, and compensating employees, and of attending to their labour relations and health and safety, Marchington and Wilkinson (2002) defined HRM as the management of employment. These definitions are perhaps simplistic in nature and failed to highlight the true concept of HRM (Michael, 2006). Michael (2006) went further to define HRM as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisations most valued assets (humans/employees) the people working in the organisation who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives, Price (2007) also supports Michaels definition with his proposed philosophy of HRM, according to Price, HRM is a philosophy of people management based on the belief that human resources are uniquely important to sustained business success. In addition to his philosophy he stated that an organisation gains competitive advantage by using its people effectively, drawing on their expertise and ingenuity to meet clearly defined objectives. Prof P.S Nel et al (2001) in their book strongly supports Michaels definition of HRM with this quote HRM is the only resource in an organisation that reacts when acted upon i.e. with the exception of human resources all other resources of an organisation are static because other resources derive their dynamic character from human resources. Although there are diverse definitions to HRM, for the purpose of this research the definition proposed by Michael (2006) will be adopted considering the fact that it clearly states that HRM is aimed at recruiting capable, flexible and committed people, managing and rewarding their performance and developing key competencies. 2.1.1 Human resources management in practice Armstrong, (2000) highlighted that HR is of immense importance to modern day organisations, it provides an approach to inducing improved performance levels through the use of the humans (employees) by improving their levels of customers service, productivity, growth, profits and quality control. There are a number of activities, roles, processes covered by HRM, Lado and Wilson (1994) outlined the following to be the HR activities in contemporary organisations Planning. Recruitment and selection Training Performance management Benefits and rewards Compensation Career development Banhegyi et al., (2008) and Robbins and Coulter, (2002) also supports the HR activities stated above as the salient global HR activities in present day organisations. 2.2.1 Planning Planning in Human Resource has been a debated topic in different HRM contexts over the years (Wren, 1994). HR was initially a strategy used to determine the strength and weaknesses among employees and to develop the skills and competences they needed (Gallagher, 2000). With the era of individual career plans, organisations started recruiting individuals with certain desired skills and competences as a method of employing individuals who shared the same orientation or objectives with that of the organisation (Kuratko and Morris (2002), this means that HR planning is essentially a method of selecting employees that align with the succession plan of the organisation. This aspect of HR is still been exhaustively discussed by many researchers, Schuler (1986) proposed that HR planning is a complicated and complex issue of debate within the HR activities. Storey (1995) argues that HR planning today is a very important task of every contemporary organisations HR department. According to him, HR planning mainly involves the identification of skills and competence within the organisation, the filling of identified competence gaps, and the facilitation of movements of employees within the organisation. An essential part of the HR planning is the succession planning which aims to ensure the supply of individuals and filling of gaps on senior key positions when they become vacant and replenish competences to areas where they are most valued (Wolfe, 1996). 2.2.2 Recruitment and selection This is the process by which an organisation places the diverse talents at their disposal in different levels of the organisation. Analoui, (2007) defined the process as an ethical approach by an organisation to find and attract the most efficient individual with the desirable skills for an available position. According to Price (2007), the recruitment process is divided into three approaches: Suitability the most qualified applicant for the position, Malleability moulded within the cultural norms, and Flexibility the most reliable and versatile employee. These factors are quite complicating and can be easily mistaken during the process of hiring employees. Suitability is a critical aspect hence its mainly concerned with the process of hiring the most suitable applicant for the position. Pfeffer (1994) proposed that the ability by an organisation to select and retain talented employees is of great advantage in the global competitive market. It is obvious from the present global market that organisations who possesses the greatest talents prevail in the competitive market hence firms tend to employ renowned managers to lead the thriving future. 2.2.3 Training It is already a well-established fact from the above literature that employees skills and knowledge are of immense impact on an organisations level of quality in goods and services (Guzzo, R A. and Noonan, K A, 1994). Ostroff and Kozlowski, (1992) supported this idea by stressing that for organisations to overcome certain problems and to attain continuous improvement the employees have to be continuously trained individually or as a team, their research also suggested that training also serves as a socialisation tool for new employees to gain cultural knowledge about the organisation, learn about the necessary tasks and how to perform their responsibility; clarifying their roles and relate with others inside the organisation. Additionally, Hackman and Wageman (1995) identified training in their study as the second most commonly used HRM practice in implementing TQM. Rollag Cardon (2003) supported this philosophy in their research as they indicated that the process of socialisation within a firm enhance new employees to integrate speedily within the new organisation. Formal training is a wide-spread method for organisations to enhance the personnel performance level, as important roles are covered also by organisational socialization and multitasking (Chao, 1997 and May, 1997). Research by Bishop (2003) highlights training as a cost effective strategy especially when there is a shortage in talented or skilled labour, employees could be trained on the job (OJB) thereby saving cost in time and resources of finding a competent workers. 2.2.4 Performance Management The concept of performance management within an organisation is to determine how the employers can get the highest level of commitment from their employees (Dransfield, 2000). There are three steps of approaching the performance measurement within an organisation, the three steps are stated below: Objectives Appraisal Feedback (Dransfield, 2000) Dransfield (2000) described the first step (objectives) as goals that are quantifiable, easy to measure and simple to communicate throughout the organisation after which the performance appraisal takes place and subsequently feedback. Although quality gurus like Deming and Juran are of the opinion performance appraisals are deterrent to quality improvement, according to Deming (1986) there are many undermining factors of performance appraisal as stated below It nourishes short-term performance, annihilates long-term planning, builds fear, demolishes teamwork, and nourishes rivalry and politics. It leaves people bitter, crushed, bruised, battered, desolate, despondent, dejected, feeling inferior, some even depressed, unfit for work for weeks after a receipt of an unacceptable rating, unable to comprehend why they are inferior. Soltani (2003; 2006), also supports this idea he believes that performance appraisal disregards the existence of variability in the system, it holds workers responsible for errors that may be the result of faults within the system and it undermines teamwork However, other investigators conclude that performance appraisal is compatible with TQM if it is based on quality criteria (Blackburn and Rosen, 1993; Simmons et al., 1995; Wilkinson et al., 1994; Wood and Peccei, 1995). Shadur et al., (1994) in their research claim that some organisations still have some form of performance appraisal and there is evidence that this HRM practice is useful in implementing TQM. Other researchers affirm that although performance appraisal can be related to individual performance, it can be of more advantage to quality improvement if it should be focused on measuring organisational and group performance (Petrick and Furr, 1995; Schuler and Jackson, 1987; Simmons et al., 1995) 2.2.5 Benefits and rewards The major determinant of human behaviour is the consequences to their actions, if employees know there is a reward for their actions they tend to work towards earning that reward, most managers in contemporary organisations have adopted the benefits and reward system as an incentive besides the wages that would derive that extra commitment from their employees, according to Appleby and mavin (2000) attaining high levels of commitment from employees within an organisation is highly essential. Consequently employee considerable effort will manifest into an intended realisation and fulfilment of a specific desired outcome. Such manifestation enhances the explanation of the crucial aspect of organisational reward system and how it can be sustain and elicit the firm human capital investment Tannenbaum and Dupuree-Bruno (1994). As defined by Manus and Graham (2003), total reward includes all types of rewards/benefits-indirect as well as direct, and intrinsic as well as extrinsic. Each aspect of reward, namely base pay, contingent pay, employee benefits and non-financial rewards, which include intrinsic rewards from the work itself, are linked together and treated as an integrated and coherent whole. The concept of total reward has emerged quite recently and is exerting considerable influence on reward management (Michael, 2006). An equally wide definition of total reward is offered by WorldatWork (2000) who state that total rewards are all of the employers available tools that may be used to attract, retain, motivate and satisfy employees. Thompson (2002) supports this idea with his definition of reward management, where he states that total reward typically encompass not only traditional, quantifiable elements like salary, variable pay and benefits, but also more intangible non-cash elements such as scope to achieve and exercise responsibility, career opportunities, learning and development, the intrinsic motivation provided by the work itself and the quality of working life provided by the organisation. 2.2.6 Compensation According to Patel Cardon (2010) compensation is an essential tool for modern-day organisations as it contributes to attract and retain high skilled employees with superior salaries, and it encourages a desired stakeholder behaviour regarding recognition and legitimacy. Minbaeva et al. (2003) inferred that compensation would enhance motivation among personnel too. Even though non-financial compensation can really work as a positive incentive for the workers, providing monetary benefits is necessary to increase the productivity of the employees on the individual or group level (Gomez-Meja, 1992). Balkin and Swift (2006) suggest a more flexible approach toward the payment issue. They proposed to relate it to the life stage of the organisation with a higher rate of non-monetary benefits during the first years of activity, and a re-equilibration whenever the company enters the mature stage. Non-monetary paybacks are represented by stock options, stocks or other form of equity sharing that enhance the participation and the motivation of employees, while spreading the risks over a larger number of people (Graham et al., 2002). The aforementioned ownership sharing represents also a long-term planning for compensation, as Graham et Al. (2002) stated, but also short-term rewards exist. These are represented by profit sharing policies aiming to encourage the employees toward group work, or to control the organisational outcomes (Heneman Tansky, 2002). 2.2.7 Career development (CD) Many practitioners and scholars within human resource development (HRD) field have claimed that the utmost crucial aspect of the practices is career development (McLagan, 1989; Weinberger, 1998; Swanson Holton, 2001). However, this area of studies has been given little attention (Upton, Egan Lynham, 2003). With the intense competition in the 21 century, many organisations have realised that in order to remain competitive they have to improve their employees and enhance their career development as an holistic approach (Boudreaux, 2001); rather than individual career development (Swanson Holton, Upton, Egan Lynham, 2003). Hence, many organisations are now taking proactive measures towards equipping their staffs (Leana, 2002) or create a climate that supports their staffs at all levels of the organisation to be more resultant and productive (Sullivan, 1999); which Boudreaux, (2001); Brown, (1997) referred to as shared responsibility. However, learning within an organisation is quite critical and expensive (McDonald et al., 2002). According to Power et al (2001) the most common learning methods within organisations are informal (i.e. on-the-job coaching, sessions, lesson learned, development assignment) and formal learning (i.e. as training/workshop and other forms of professional training conducted by professional bodies internally or externally (McDonald et al., 2002). 1.3.1 Reservations about HRM As many other departments within an organisation encounter, HRM has its own challenges, according to Michael (2006) the main reservation have been that HRM promises more than it can deliver and that its morality is suspect, Michael

Friday, January 17, 2020

Fashion in Britain

Manner in Britain London is one of the most influential centres of manner in the universe with the manner hebdomad held twice a twelvemonth in February and September. The British manner scene is extremely regarded and appreciated in the manner universe since it is portion of the alleged E?Big FourE? [ 1 ] . However, such a high rank wouldn?t have been achieved without The British Fashion Council. This establishment was established in 1983 to assist organizing interior decorators, forming manner hebdomads and advancing immature draw a bead oning theoretical accounts, directors and interior decorators. The current president is Natalie Massenet who was appointed to this place in 2013. Britain does everything in its power to maintain and beef up non merely it topographic point at the top but besides the influence it bestows on immature manner lovers. Many of its manner colleges, the most of import and universe famous is surely the London Fashion College, are highly competitory and attract 1000s of appliers from all over the universe every academic twelvemonth. From all of the above mentioned it is non hard to reason that manner is, and ever was, really of import to the British people. We are able to follow it all the manner to the Roman invasion of the British islands in 43 AD. The manner people dressed in the earliest period of the British history before the Roman encroachers does non render itself to the analysis given the fact that merely scarce grounds exists. The preserved artifacts from that period include parts/fragments of vesture and pieces of jewelry. Harmonizing to the vesture found in Gravess, we can freely presume that adult females had worn adventitias and masterfully made pieces of jewelry such as broachs ( which were presumptively used to fix the adventitias ) . However, these material artifacts are non plenty for pulling any certain scientific decision about the E?fashionE? in the period before 43 AD. During the Roman business of Britain, the land was divided into states and the overall province of the common people was really hapless. Since this period was marked by changeless battle and conflict for endurance there was no British manner or manner of dressing we can discourse. Thus, I will jump this period in my paper. I will take you to the journey through the history of British manner from the mediaeval period to modern manner tendencies and the greatest manner houses. Bear in head that during each century manner changed from decennary to decennary and it is non possible to include everything so this paper will concentrate merely on the most outstanding features of manner in the given period. Medieval and Renaissance manner The basic medieval vesture consisted of adventitias with long arms and linen skirts for a adult male around 1050. Women wore similar adventitias but longer and were obliged to cover hair with a goon. Although, manner changed easy through the in-between age we can separate several chief ways of dressing. Hundred old ages subsequently, nil changed significantly for adult females whereas work forces added pointed chapeaus and legings into their garments. Around 1250 loose cloaks and shorter arms for both work forces and adult females came into manner. At a same clip, loose gowns with arms cut at two sides became really popular ( these sorts of gowns are still popular today being the E?ancestorsE? of modern formal gowns and dance frocks ) . In 14Thursdaycentury adult females braided hair into a roll and a henin was worn by the aristocracy. The henin was a chapeau or hair dress more exactly in the form of cone with head coverings. These were normally expensive and represented a mark of aristocracy and aristocracy. Work force wore pointed places called crackowes or poulaines and the arrow they were the richer was the proprietor. From 1430 onwards the appareled and male garments became richer and richer ; stuffs were rich, heavy and embroidered many of them imported from Italy and Flanders. Sleeves were given funnel form and were lined with pelt while the front portion of a frock was normally pinned back to let a lady easier walking. When the Renaissance reached its extremum, work forces were normally dressed in the E?Italian FashionE? manner which meant have oning tight apparels such as doublet and hosieries. Work forces had long loose gowns hanging over their shoulders and those gowns were cut unfastened in order to demo contrastive facings. British manner during 16Thursdayand 17Thursdaycentury The manner of the Tudor?s tribunal was characterized by a low waist and a high neckline. During the reign of Henry VIII, the Italian manner was still outstanding and work forces wore over-grown short gowns with skirts, tight hosieries. Approximately around 1520 full upper arms became popular. Women?s apparels did non alter significantly until the accession of Queen Elisabeth I. The twelvemonth 1600 saw the rise of Spanish manner. Men wore cushioned doublet and short knee pantss making the waist. The E?Spanish cloakE? was obligatory portion of vesture for royalty and aristocracy. It was made of heavy, rich stuff and was heavy embroidered. Nowadays, it is believed that sir Walter Raleigh through this sort of coat in the clay in order to protect Queen Elisabeth I from stepping into it. Queen Elisabeth dictated manner tendencies from her accession to the throne until approximately 1634, 31 old ages after her decease. She introduced long, stiff bodices and skirts of frocks were supported by farthingales and boulsters. Sleeves were broad and neckline was low cut in a specific manner in order to border the face. Caps were no longer worn ; hair was worn high with threads and plumes. In the in-between 17Thursdaycentury, the Dutch manner was popular. Work force wore unstiffened jacket and broad loose knee pantss ( similar to a musketeers? manner in France ) . Female apparels still involved stiff bodices while the long rich skirts were cut unfastened. False coil were added to hair beside threads. In the late 17Thursdaycentury, the manner of Gallic tribunals became outstanding. An over-gown was worn over the stiff girdle but was pinned back and gathered behind the waist in order to demo embroidered half-slip. British manner during 18Thursdayand 19Thursdaycentury From the beginning to the center of the 18Thursday,gentlemen wore tight knee pantss fastened above the articulatio genus and field tightly suiting coats which formed curvy dress suits at the terminals. Men wore their ain hair, but the formal occasions they were expected to have on white powdery wigs. Ladies wore long heavy frocks dwelling of stiff bodices and several beds of petticoats. Wing-like arms were introduced and frocks were made of silk and heavy brocaded stuffs. Towards the terminal of the 17Thursdaycentury, dresses became simpler due to the strong influence of the countryside manner. It is called redingote or a riding coat –the waist of a frock become shorter and a false hindquarters was added. Silk was worn merely in the eventides and formal occasions while the mundane frocks were made of wool, linen and cotton. At the beginning of the 18Thursdaycentury, the involvement in ancient Greece and Rome woke once more, particularly in the ancient manner. Dresses consisted of merely one half-slip with high waist. Long baseball mitts every bit good as muslin entered the manner. The girdle ( bodice ) left the manner scene and light stuffs were used. Gentlemen wore dark fitted suits dwelling of a cloth coat with buttons plain vests. Breechess were replaced by a Pantaloons and a hessian siting boots became popular. George Brummell brought to manner a formal suit with a necktie which is still worn all over the universe on formal occasions. The manner of this epoch is exactly portrayed in the BBC version of the fresh E?Pride and PrejudiceE? starring Colin Firth and Jennifer Ehle. The manner of 20thcentury The line of a frock changed since the accent was put on the shoulders and waist. Sleeves were puffed and skirts were long and fluxing. Hats were ever worn by ladies. The involvement in leather pocketbooks revived. [ 2 ] Evening dressed were low cut and made of alien stuff. Everything alien became popular-from stuff to make-up and hairdos. Hair was loose, curly and bob hairdo was popular. In 1947 Christian Dior presented the E?New LookE? which involved fitted jacket with nipped waist and full calf-length skirt. Mary Quant introduced short mini-dresses and skirts ( 6-7 inches above the articulatio genus ) . The manner was shaped by Gallic interior decorators such as Dior and Gabriele E?CocoE? Chanel who brought denims, tanned tegument and expensive gustatory sensation to the manner universe. The 50s saw the rise of theoretical accounts such as Twiggy and Jean Shrimpton. Clothes were used to demo societal position. Vivienne Westwood claim celebrity as the interior decorator during 70s a nd today. The 80s were a decennary of degeneracy with large hair and large puffed shoulders. In general, manner of the 20Thursdaycentury put speech pattern on female organic structure ( frocks became tighter following slender figure ) , make-up and hair, or as you wish-beauty in general. Modern manner in Britain is extremely influenced by the royal household, exactly, the Duchess of Cambridge Kate Middleton. Womans throughout England are seeking to copy her simple yet elegant and authoritative manner. Beside the royalty, theoretical accounts such as Kate Moss, who is considered British manner icon, represent manner function theoretical accounts to about all coevalss. Although Britain is non as rich in the being of influential manner houses as France, it still maintains high topographic point in the universe manner industry with aid of two most celebrated brands/houses-Burberry and Mulberry. Burberry Young Thomas Burberry was the laminitis of the trade name in 1856. He introduced water-repellent cloth which is called gabardine. Soon, the trade name started utilizing the name Burberrys which still can be seen on some older merchandises. In 1901, the company adopted celebrated E?Equestrian KnightE? as its logo. During the Second World War, the company was given the undertaking to alter and accommodate officers? uniforms to the rough conditions of war on unfastened field. As a consequence, the celebrated Burberry trench coat was developed. Interestingly, it is still worn today enduring merely minor alterations and is the hallmark of this trade name. In 1998, the company switched to utilizing the name Burberry once more. Modern Burberry has three trade names or subdivisions under its umbrella: Burberry Prorsum which is the basic line, Burberry London which produces concern outfits and Burberry Brit which is targeted at younger coevalss. The originative manager is Christopher Bailey. Mulberry Roger Saul and his female parent were the laminitiss of this manner house. The trade name is largely known for its leather bags, off-the-rack aggregations of vesture and accoutrements. Current CEO is Chris Roberts. In 2006, the company started the apprenticeship programmes in order to promote immature interior decorators and to supply employment for the local people. The learners are offered occupations once they finish the programme. The current interior decorator is Emma Hill who came to Mulberry in 2007. She is responsible for doing the trade name internationally celebrated and successful. However, in 2013, the trade name announced that Mrs Hill was go forthing the company in 2014. As a consequence, monetary value of portion stocks fell. In malice of this impermanent crisis, the trade name has many celebrated clients, most noteworthy of them being the Duchess of Cambridge. The rise of Britain as a manner power force decidedly started in the seventiess with the visual aspect of Vivienne Westwood who brought hood into the manner. Since so, the British manner scene saw many gifted interior decorators who helped Britain to remain among the top four. The most of import of them are John Galliano, Jenny Peckham, and Alice Temperley. Vivienne Westwood is the manner interior decorator who foremost became for planing apparels for McLaren and hood set Sex Pistols. Her first track show was held 1981 and the subject was the Pirates. When planing apparels, she likes to utilize traditional Scottish design, old cutting techniques from 17Thursdayand 18Thursdaycentury. Her designs vary from hood apparels, places, chapeaus to sole eventide gowns. Her designs were featured in the E?Sex and the CityE? movie. Although she was invited to take part in the costume designing, Westwood was dissatisfied with the chosen designs and the manner these were presented in the movie. As a consequence, she left London movie premiere and harshly criticized the costumes. She was appointed Dame Grand Cross of the British Empire. Jenny Peckham is most known for her nuptial aggregations, flushing gowns and off-the-rack outfits. In 2008, she launched bridal accessorize to follow her nuptials frocks. From 2010, her manner shows became lasting portion of the programme of New York Fashion Week. Alice Temperley designs for her manner house Temperley London founded in 2010. She puts accent on quality silk stuffs and her couture gowns are hand-made. In 2011, her Royal Majesty Queen of England appointed Temperley Member of the Order of the British Empire. Mentions Fukai, A. ( 2006 ) .Manner: a history from the 18th to the twentieth century. New York: Barnes & A ; Baronial Pub.Hart, A. and S. North ( 2009 ) .17th & A ; eighteenth Century Fashion Detail Fashion in Detail.London: V & A ; A PublicationHouston, Mary G. ( 1996 ) .Medieval Costume in England and France: The 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries. New York: Dover Publications, IncKlepper, E. ( 1999 ) .Costume through the Ages: Over 1400 Illustrations. New York: Dover Publications, IncLaver, J. and C. Probert ( 1983 ) .Costume and Fashion: A Concise History. Oxford: Oxford University PressPalomo-Lovinski, N. ( 2010 ) .The World ‘s Most Influential Manner Interior designers. London: A & A ; C Black PublishersPeacock, J. ( 2006 ) .Costume: 1066 to the Present. New York: Thames & A ; HudsonScott, M. ( 2011 ) .Manner in Middle Ages. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty MuseumWatt, J. ( 2012 ) .Manner The Ultimate Book of Costume and Style. London: Dorling KindersleyWerle, S. ( 2010 ) .50 Manner Interio r designers You Should Know. Muenchen: Prestel PrintingWilcox, C. and V. Mendes ( 2009 ) .Twentieth Century Fashion in Detail. London: V & A ; A PublicationBurberry. Burberry London. ( 08 February, 2014 ) & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. ( 08 February, 2014 ) & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // ( company )1

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Thesaurus History, Definition, and Examples

A thesaurus is a book of synonyms, often including related words and antonyms. Plural is  thesauri or thesauruses. Peter Mark Roget (1779-1869) was a physician, a scientist, an inventor, and a Fellow of the Royal Society. His fame rests on a book that he published in 1852: Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases. Neither Roget nor thesaurus is copyrighted, and several different versions of Rogets work are available today. Etymology:  From the Latin, treasury. Pronunciation:  thi-SOR-us Observations John McPhee: The value of a thesaurus is not to make a writer seem to have a vast vocabulary of recondite words. The value of a thesaurus is in the assistance it can give you in finding the best possible word for the mission that the word is supposed to fulfill. Sarah L. Courteau: A thesaurus can extract that word thats on the tip of your tongue but cant quite reach your lips. It reacquaints you with words youve forgotten and presents ones you dont know. It suggests relationships but usually doesnt spell them out—like a hostess who invites you to a party of well-connected guests where youre expected to circulate and make your own introductions. In our hyper-searchable world, in which shelf browsing and even book skimming are on the wane, the thesaurus reminds us that precision isnt always a matter of predestined calibration. It can still be an informed choice. T. S. Kane: The limitations of most thesauri are revealed in the directions given in one edition of Roget: Turning to No. 866 (the sense required) we read through the varied list of synonyms... and select the most appropriate expression. [Italics added] The matter of selection is critical, and a thesaurus does not offer much help with that. For example, among the synonyms listed in one Roget under the category seclusion/exclusion are solitude, isolation, loneliness, and aloofness. They are merely listed as alternates with no distinctions drawn. but, except in a very loose sense, these words are not completely synonymous and may not be interchanged indiscriminately. To use these synonyms effectively you need to know considerably more about them than a thesaurus is likely to tell you. With many words—those in the example, for instance—a good abridged dictionary is more helpful... [But] used wisely, [a thesaurus] can improve your working vocabulary. Bruce Sterling: Rogets Disease. The ludicrous overuse of farfetched adjectives, piled into a festering, fungal, tenebrous, troglodytic, ichorous, leprous, synonymic heap. (Attr. John W. Campbell) Bill Brohaugh: The word thesaurus has numerous synonyms—so many that you could fill a magazine with them. So many you could fill a warehouse with them. A storehouse, even, or perhaps a treasury, a depository, a repository, an armory, a stockpile, a chest, a compendium, a vault, a hoard, a promptuary, a reservoir... all of which, you have likely guessed by now, are words that you would legitimately find in a thesaurus of thesauri.

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

The Behaviorist Theory And The Nativist Theory - 963 Words

Learning a language is very important in the human life, without some type of language humans would not be able to survive in this world. Language is something that humans use in a daily life. It is what they use to get what they want, to fight for what they believe, to resolve a conflict; language is important. The way that someone may learn a language is just as important as knowing a language. The way someone may learn a language is important because the way they learned it may affect the way they interact with people in the world. Language is a way of communicating with others either verbally or by using other signals that has meaning to them (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner Nock, 2015). There are various theories about how children develop language, in this paper I will talk about the behaviorist theory and the nativist theory. The behaviorist theory is an explanation that children learn language by reinforcement, shaping and other principles of operant conditioning (Schacter et al. , 2015). This theory is all according to B.F. Skinner, he believes that if a child’s vocalizations are not given praise when said correctly it will fade and that those that are given attention will remain in the child’s memory (Schacter et al., 2015). Skinner believes that a person learns a language like they learn any other skill. In this theory it describes how important it is for the caregiver to be apart and available to a child’s early childhood. In this theory it is believed to be theShow MoreRelatedLanguage Acquisition : Study Of How Humans Acquire A Set Of Semantic, Syntactic And Phonological Categories Essay1625 Words   |  7 Pagesday cannot be described with just one accurate theory. The Behaviorist Theory One of the earliest studies of language acquisition was done by scientist B.F Skinner. His theory is best known as, â€Å"The Behaviorist Theory of Language Acquisition.† Skinner believed that children are born as â€Å"empty vessels,† and language has to be â€Å"put into them† through experiences. (Nur Khalidah Follow.) Skinners idea that babies were â€Å"empty vessels,† supports his theory that language depends largely on the environmentRead MoreLanguage Acquisition1336 Words   |  6 PagesRefer the theories of language acquisition (Behaviorist theories, nativist theories and interactionist theories) and write an evaluation of them.Consider the stages of language acquisition in the evaluation of these theories. Human language development is a huge debate between Nature Vs Nurture within theorists of various fields in psychology.There are three major schools of thought that will be mainly focused on; behaviourist, nativist (rationalist)Read MoreTheoretical Perspectives Curriculum931 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Learning theories are used to develop curriculums that explain learning models used in education. These models help simplify education from the earliest stages of childhood through formal education. This paper will explore the learning theories and how they can be applied in developing a curriculum for learning and teaching language. The curriculum will include the epistemology, motivation, and methods of learning Cognitive Jean Piaget and John Dewey helped develop the theory of CognitiveRead MoreChild Language Acquisition: Nature or Nurture?1645 Words   |  7 Pagestheoretical positions, the behaviorist and the nativist, are the most prominent and influential ones (Ayoun, 2003; Garton Pratt, 1998; Owens, 2001). Due to the indefinite explanation of the exact process, the continuous interest of the inquiring people, and the sheer significance of the precise result, the controversy remains ongoing and popular. In view of the more obvious limitations of the behaviorist interpretation and the prevailing contributions of the nativist interpretation, the latterRead More Language Acquisition in Children Essay1626 Words   |  7 Pagestheoretical positions, the behaviorist and the nativist, are the most prominent and influential ones (Ayoun, 2003; Garton Pratt, 1998; Owens, 2001). Due to the indefinite explanation of the exact process, the continuous interest of the inquiring people, and the sheer signific ance of the precise result, the controversy remains ongoing and popular. In view of the more obvious limitations of the behaviorist interpretation and the prevailing contributions of the nativist interpretation, the latterRead MoreOral Language And Development : Developing Language Through Nature And Nurture Theories Essay1276 Words   |  6 PagesDevelopment Developing Language Through Nature and Nurture Theories Language development is much more complex than one would think. Not only are there strategies and factors behind developing one’s native language, but there are also theories set in place to guide the steps of building language. On the other hand, nurture inspired theories (also know as empiricist) are based of factors in the environment. This means that people believe nurture theories are based off of what young children experience growingRead MoreOrigins of Behaviorism Essay1714 Words   |  7 Pagesbehaviourist, and he was convinced of the importance of objective method, experimental rigor, and the capacity of elegant experimentation and inductive science to solve the most complex behavioral problems. His theory has long been described as the stimulus-response theory. His research is based on the idea of the connection between a response and a subsequent reinforcing event, not a stimulus and a subsequent response. He theorized that there are no controlling stimuli forRead MoreSpeech and Hearing Science1723 Words   |  7 Pageshis language skills. Lesson 2 was about the science and the theory of language development. The main topic for this session was whether child language development is influenced by nature or nurture. As the issue of nature and nurture was introduced, other two terms, behaviorist and nativists were introduced as well. The behaviorists’ claim is that children develop language through nurture (Chavaday, 2005). On the other hand, the Nativists’ claim is that children acquire language through nature (ChavadayRead MoreLanguage Acquisition Theories : Behaviorism, Linguistic Nativism, Social Interactionism, And Neurobiological Perspective1580 Words   |  7 Pagesthere are four different language acquisition theories: behaviorism, linguistic nativism, social interactionism, and the neurobiological perspective. According to Christie and Enz (2011), behaviorist insinuates that nurturing, which is the way a child is taught or sculpted by parents and the surroundings, plays a principal position in ch ildren’s language advancement. The nativist perspective is the opposite of the behaviorist perspective; nativists believe every child has an innate ability to ascertainRead MoreThe Theory Of Language Development1975 Words   |  8 Pagesdemonstrate the theory of how language is developed in early years of life. This is a question people, including myself often think about. Using two theorists, Burrhus Fredrick Skinner (1904-1990) and Avram Noam Chomsky (1928- present) we will explore the two theories they studied in their lifetime and dedicate their life to, and contrast the two theories of language development, exploring the Behaviorist Theory, studied by Skinner and the Nativist Theory, studied by Chomsky. These two theories of language

Monday, December 23, 2019

Classical Theory of Employment - 5251 Words

Project The Classical Theory Of Employment amd output The fundamental principle of the classical theory is that the economy is self-regulating. Classical economists maintain that the economy is always capable of achieving the natural level of real GDP or output, which is the level of real GDP that is obtained when the economys resources are fully employed. While circumstances arise from time to time that cause the economy to fall below or to exceed the natural level of real GDP, self-adjustment mechanisms exist within†¦show more content†¦Some workers will be rendered superfluous and will remain unemployed. The classical answer to the problem is that like all other goods and their prices workers’ wage rate should be cut or lowered so that the employers will be induced to employ more number of workers. The condition of full employment can then be restored if workers are agreed upon the wage cut solution. Thus flexible rate of wages is a classical approach to solve the problem of unemployment. It is possible that some workers may resist a cut in the wage rate and may remain unemployed. But according to the classical viewpoint such unemployment is only voluntary in nature. Moreover individual employers face excess supply of labor conditions. Therefore such unemployment is only temporary and partial in nature. With the acceptance of the law: Supply creates its own demand, there cannot be any prolonged, involuntary and general unemployment situation in the economy. The classical theory therefore rules out any general or widespread kind of unemployment. This sort of classical assertion is a result of the typical approach of the classicists to the capitalist free enterprise system. They believed in the self-equilibrating nature of such an economy. Even if there are any disturbances in the initial equilibrium conditions these are temporary and minor. Moreover, these can be cured automatically and spontaneously. There is an in-built flexibility in the supply and demand forces whi ch leads the economyShow MoreRelatedMacroeconomic Theories Of Macroeconomics And Classical Economics999 Words   |  4 Pagesthe two most general fields in economics. There are two major macroeconomic theories that economists use to describe the economy. Those theories are Keynesian and Classical. Each theory has a different approach to the economic study of monetary policies, consumer behaviors, and government spending. A few distinctions separate the two theories. Classical economics is the theory that free markets will restore full employment without government intervention. They believe that the markets function bestRead MoreThe Theory Of The Classical School1694 Words   |  7 Pages The classical school is one of the economic thoughts; the key assumption of this school is that the market system is the most efficient system in the sense that the unencumbered market mechanism ensures the optimal allocation and utilisation of scarce resources. They also believed that â€Å"Supply creates its own demand.† (The early debate on policy atavism) In other words, in the process of producing output, businesses would also create enough income to ensure that all of the output will be sold.Read MoreIntroduction. The Rising Unemployment Has Generated Challenges1381 Words   |  6 Pagescommunities. Unemployment involves a situation where people in a particular community are actively seeking employment but the employment rates are low. The increased rates of unemployment are contributed to by factors such as recession periods that adversely affects the economy. Impacts on the economy in turn affect the labor force leading to loss of employment and reducing the rates of employment opportunities in the country. The United States has experienced cases of recession periods and has causedRead MoreEconomics : Classical Economics And Keynesian Economics1665 Words   |  7 Pagesattempt to highlight the key factors of the two theories of economics: classical economics and Keynesian economics. Since Classical Economics is considered to be the first school of economics. I will start to explain this concept first. In the 18th and 19th centuries, there was a group of economists that worked together to develop theories to explain how market to market relationship work between each other. The most important contributor to the classical school of economics was the great economistRead MoreClassical Vs Keynesian Economics1235 Words   |  5 PagesClassical and Keynesian economics are both accepted schools of thought in economics, but each had a different approach to defining economics. The Classical economic theory was developed by Adam Smith while Keynesian theory was developed by John Maynard Keynes. Similarities: One of the most surprising similarities between the two theories is that John Keynes developed his theory based on the Adam Smith’s theory. Keynes did not entirely disagree with Adam Smith but rather, expanded the theory basedRead MoreEconomic Advisement Paper1634 Words   |  7 Pages372 July 11, 2013 Dr. Samuel Imarhiagbe Two Economic Theories Modernizing over the decades, two main theories support economists, proposals, arguments, and predictions. The first theory is the Classical model perspective and the second theory is the Keynesian model perspective. The first theory promotes a hands-off approach and the second a government intervention approach. The first theory believes that if left alone, the natural market forces would right themselvesRead MoreThe Keynesian Era During The Middle Of The Nineteenth Century1720 Words   |  7 PagesThomas Mathus, and John Stuart Mill all shared somewhat similar economic views of the world. Some of the main concepts covered during this time included the division of labor, theories of rent, value, and distribution, theories of market â€Å"gluts† and population, and opportunity cost, competition, and trade. These classical economists believed capitalism was the foundation for an efficient economy where little to no government intervention was recognized. Alth ough they disagreed on some issues, economicsRead MoreNew Classical Macroeconomics And Macroeconomics Essay1555 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction New classical Macroeconomics is an important school of macroeconomics development since 1970s. New Classical Macroeconomics is originally evolved from the school of Rational Expectations and monetarism. New classical Macroeconomics is also referred to the Macroeconomics of the rational expectations, or equilibrium method for Macroeconomics. New classical Macroeconomics abides by traditions of the classical economics and believes in the effectiveness of market forces. New classical MacroeconomicsRead MoreEconomic Studies: Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis793 Words   |  3 Pagesdifferent materials such as the government. Two very important economic theories include classical and Keynesian economics. They each have a specific approach on studying consumer behavior, monetary policy, and government spending. Classical economics began during and after the industrialization and was founded by David Ricardo where Friedrich von Hayek became a strong defender of this theory. The classical economic theory is known as free market also referred to as laissez-faire. This means itRead MoreThe Classical Economists and Keynes: the Debate on Government Policy Activism1189 Words   |  5 Pageseconomist John Maynard Keynes, and the classical economists of his time, whose economic foundations lay in Alfred Marshall’s seminal work, the Principles of Economic. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the classical economist’s non-activist view on unemployment, and Keynes’s critical response to the classical economist and his belief the government should play an activist role in combating unemployment. One of the most important tenets of classical economics is that market economies automatically